The term “movement disorders” refers to a group of nervous system (neurological) conditions that cause abnormal increased movements, which may be voluntary or involuntary. Movement disorders can also cause reduced or slow movements.
Types of movement disorder
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Common types of movement disorders include:
- Ataxia. This movement disorder affects the part of the brain that controls coordinated movement (cerebellum). Ataxia may cause uncoordinated or clumsy balance, speech or limb movements, and other symptoms.
- Cervical dystonia.This condition causes long-lasting contractions (spasms) or intermittent contractions of the neck muscles, causing the neck to turn in different ways.
- Chorea. Chorea is characterized by repetitive, brief, irregular, somewhat rapid, involuntary movements that typically involve the face, mouth, trunk and limbs.
- Dystonia. This condition involves sustained involuntary muscle contractions with twisting, repetitive movements. Dystonia may affect the entire body (generalized dystonia) or one part of the body (focal dystonia).
- Functional movement disorder.This condition may resemble any of the movement disorders, but is not due to neurological disease.
- Huntington’s disease. This is an inherited progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that causes uncontrolled movements (chorea), impaired cognitive abilities and psychiatric conditions.
- Multiple system atrophy. .This uncommon, progressive neurological disorder affects many brain systems. Multiple system atrophy causes a movement disorder, such as ataxia or parkinsonism. It can also cause low blood pressure and impaired bladder function.
- Myoclonus. .This condition causes lightning-quick jerks of a muscle or a group of muscles.
- Parkinson’s disease. .This slowly progressive, neurodegenerative disorder causes tremor, stiffness (rigidity), slow decreased movement (bradykinesia) or imbalance. It may also cause other nonmovement symptoms.
- Parkinsonism. . Parkinsonism describes a group of conditions that has symptoms similar to those of Parkinson’s disease.
- Progressive supranuclear palsy. . This is a rare neurological disorder that causes problems with walking, balance and eye movements. It may resemble Parkinson’s disease but is a distinct condition.
- Restless legs syndrome. .This movement disorder causes unpleasant, abnormal feelings in the legs while relaxing or lying down, often relieved by movement.
- Tardive dyskinesia. .This neurological condition is caused by long-term use of certain drugs used to treat psychiatric conditions (neuroleptic drugs). Tardive dyskinesia causes repetitive and involuntary movements such as grimacing, eye blinking and other movements.
- Tourette syndrome. . This is a neurological condition that starts between childhood and teenage years and is associated with repetitive movements (motor tics) and vocal sounds (vocal tics).
- Tremor. . This movement disorder causes involuntary rhythmic shaking of parts of the body, such as the hands, head or other parts of the body. The most common type is essential tremor.
- Wilson’s disease. . This is a rare inherited disorder that causes excessive amounts of copper to build up in the body, causing neurological problems.